英語中級口譯翻譯技能大全

發布時間:2017-04-13 00:00:00 編輯:吳健敏 手機版

  英語中級口譯考試一般在每年的3月和9月舉行,今年中級口譯筆試已經全部結束,考生只能報名參加明年春季的筆試。翻譯是筆試的重難點,考生在備考的時候,可以學習掌握基本的知識和技能。下面是yjbys小編為大家帶來的關于英語中級口譯翻譯技能的知識,歡迎閱讀。

  一、表示“不多不少”、“恰恰正好”的翻譯策略

  表示“不多不少”、“恰恰正好”,英語一般使用clear, cool, exactly, flat, just. sharp, whole等。如:

  1、Professor Johnson finished the experiment in twenty-four hours flat.

  約翰遜教授完成這一實驗正好用了24小時。

  2、The physician treated cool 30 patients that day.

  這位內科醫生那天正好看了30個病人。

  3、 The plane takes off at 8 o’clock sharp.

  這架飛機8點整起飛。

  4、 The machine worked for ten whole days.

  這臺機器整整運轉了10天時間。

  5、The wire measures exact twenty meters.

  這條導線剛好20米長。

  二、表示“大約”、“不確定”的翻譯策略英語一般

  常使用about, some, around, round, nearly, towards, somewhere about, estimated, approximately, in /of /on the border of, close to 等詞修飾數字,表示“不確定”、“大約”、“上下”、“將近”、“幾乎”等。

  1、 The volume of the sun is about/some/ around /round 1,300,000 times that of the earth.

  太陽的體積約為地球的130萬倍。

  2、It is nearly / toward(s)4 o’clock.

  現在已是將近4點了。

  3、The price of this new machine is in the neighborhood of / of the order of a thousand dollars.

  這臺新機器的價格約1,000美元。

  4、It has been reported that noise figure is in the border of 4 to 5 db at 2 GHz..

  據報導,在2,000兆赫時,噪音系數約為4—5分貝。

  5、According to the weatherman , the temperature will be up 5℃ or so.

  據天氣預報,氣溫將升高5℃ 左右。

  三、表示“高于”、“多于”的翻譯方法

  英語常用more than, odd, over, above, long, past, or more, upwards of, higher than, exceed, in excess of 等詞修飾數字,表示“超過”、“以上”、“有余”、“高于”、“多于”等。

  1、Pig iron is an alloy of iron and carbon with the carbon content more than two percent.

  生鐵是鐵碳合金,其中碳含量超過2%。

  2、 Only when a rocket attains a speed of 18,000 odd miles per hour, can it put a man –made satellite into orbit.

  只有當火箭速度達到每小時18.000多英里時,才能把人造衛星送入軌道。

  3、 Over /Above /More than /Not less than 100 chemical elements are known to man ; of these about 80 are metals.

  人類已知的化學元素有100種以上,其中有約80種是金屬。

  4、Upwards of seven thousand medical workers and twenty thousand PLA men have left for the earthquake district .

  有七千多名醫務人員和兩萬多名解放軍前往震區。

  5、The patients are children of three years old and upwards.

  這些病人是三歲和三歲以上的兒童。

  四、表示“少于”、“差一些”、“不到”等的翻譯方法

  英語常用less, less than, below, no more than, under, short of, off, to, within, as few as 等詞修飾數字,表示“少于”、“不到”、“以下”等。

  1、It took one month less than three years for them to develop the new material.

  他們花了三年差一個月研制這種新材料。

  2、Helium in the air is a little under 1%.

  空氣中氦的含量略低于1%。

  3、The efficiency of the best of these engines is under /below/ less than /no more than 40%.

  這些發動機中效率最好的也不到40%。

  五、形容數目、數量多時的翻譯方法

  英語中常用full, solid, at least, all of , no less than , as… as 等詞來修飾數字,強調數目很大、數量很多。

  They covered full twenty reference sources on fluidics in a single day.

  僅用了一天時間,他們就看完了足足20種有關射流的資料。

  2、The motor ran 450 solid days on end .

  馬達連續運轉了足足450天。

  3、The experiment will take three months, at least.

  實驗至少需要三個月時間。

  4、The temperature at the sun’s center is as high as 10,000,000℃ .

  太陽中心的溫度高達攝氏1,000 萬度。

  5、There were no less than 3,000 dead and wounded in the 9.11 terrorist attack.

  在9.11恐怖襲擊中,死傷者達3,000 多人。

  六、形容數目小、數量少時的翻譯技巧英語中常用only, merely, barely, scarcely, but, at most, no more than, scant 等詞修飾數字,強調數目小、數量少。

  There is at most only room for one person.

  至多只有可容納一個人的空間。

  That solar-energy car weighs only/ merely/ barely/ scarcely / but 500kg.

  那輛太陽能汽車重量僅有500公斤。

  Inspection time for the installation was no more than 2 hours.

  檢驗安裝工作僅用了兩個小時。

  七、表示兩者或多者范圍數量的翻譯英語中常用from…to, between… and (to) 來修飾數字,表示范圍,他們通常可譯為“從……到……”、“在……之間”等。

  The energy of the fuel wasted by the reciprocating steam engine is between 80 and /to 85 percent .

  往復式蒸汽機浪費的燃料能量為80%到85%。

  The ladle refining time takes on average between 3 and 4 hours depending on the treatment required.

  桶內精煉時間平均為3至4小時,這要視所需要的處理量而定。

  八、需要換算數詞的翻譯

  由于英語數字的表達與漢語數字的表達方式不同,漢譯時需要換算。數字的換算看起來似乎很簡單,但翻譯工作者往往會因為不小心而犯錯誤,可謂失之毫厘、謬之千里。

  ten thousand (10個千→一萬)

  one hundred thousand (100個千→十萬)

  ten million (10個百萬→一千萬)

  one hundred million(100個百萬→億)

  one billion (十億)(美語)

  ten billion(10個十億→百億)

  one hundred billion (100個十億→千億)

  one trillion(萬億)

  九、英語中表示倍數的翻譯

  英語中表示倍數的翻譯,有兩點應引起注意:一是英漢倍數的表達法:二是英漢兩種語言的單位表達法。

  (一)用聯系動詞或行為動詞和包含有數詞n的詞語相搭配

  具體表達方式有如下幾種,分別譯作“是……的n倍”、“n杯于”或“比……大(n-1倍)”

  be n times as + 形容詞(或副詞)+as…

  1、this substance reacts three times as fast as the other.

  該物質的反應速度是那種物質反應速度的3倍。(或:該物質的反應速度比那種物質的反應速度快2倍)

  be n times +比較級+than

  2、this line is two times longer than that one .

  這條線的長度是那條線長度的2倍。(或:這條線比那條線長1倍)

  be +比較級+than+名詞+by n times

  3、mercury weighs more than water by about 14 times.

  水銀的重量約為水的14倍。(或:水銀比水重13倍)

  be +比較級+by a factor of n

  4、the error probability of binary AM is greater than binary FM by a factor of at least 6.

  二進制條幅的誤差概率比二進制調頻至少大5倍。(或:二進制調幅的誤差概率至少是二進制調頻的6倍)

  (二)在系動詞或行為動詞后接“as+形容詞或副詞+again as”或接“again as +形容詞或副詞+as ”

  這些搭配通常可譯作“是……的兩倍”,“比……多一倍”。另外需注意,如果again前再加half, 則表示“比……大(長、寬……)半倍”。

  1、this wire is as long again as that one .

  這根金屬線的長度是那根的2倍。(或:這根金屬線比那根金屬線長1倍)

  as many /much again (as )(比……)可譯作“多一倍”:

  2、professor Li has books as many again as I do.

  李教授的書比我的書多一倍。

  (三)用帶有“增大”意思的動詞(increase, rise, grow, go up等)和下列包含有數詞 n (表示數字、百分數或倍數)的詞語相配合

  具體表達方式有:“動詞+n times”,“動詞+by +n times”,“動詞+to +n times”,“動詞+n-fold”,“動詞+by a factor of +n”等,可譯作“增加到n倍”,“增加了(n-1)倍”。

  1、the sales of industrial electronic products have multiplied six times.

  工業電子產品銷售額增加了5倍。

  2、the strength of the attraction increases by four times if the distance between the original charges is behalved.

  如果原電荷的距離縮短一半,則引力就增大到原來4倍。或:如果原電荷的距離縮短一半,則引力比原來大3倍。

  3、by 2004 the production of primary copper has increased fivefold.

  到2004年,原銅產量增長了4倍。

  (四)用帶有“增大”意思的動詞(increase,rise, grow, go up等)連接“(by)n+單位(或n%)”, 表示凈增量,數詞n 可照譯, 例如:

  1、the output went up 45,000 tons.

  產量增加了45,000 噸。

  the production has increased by 45%. 生產已增加了45%。

  3、automation will help us to raise the output of production by thirty percent.

  自動化能幫助我們提高產量30%。

  4、industrial output rose by 0.9 percent in June.

  6月份產量增長了0.9%。

  (五)用表示倍數的動詞表示量的增加

  其中,double 表示“是……的2倍”、“增加1倍”或“翻一番”;treble 表示為“是…… 的3倍”、“增加兩倍”或“增加到3倍”;quadruple 表示“是……的4倍”、“增加3倍”或“翻兩番”;quintuple 表示“是……的5倍”、“增加至5倍”或“增加了4倍”;sextuple 表示“使成6倍”;septuple “使成為7倍”;octuple 表示“使成為8倍”。

  1、the new airport will double the capacity of the existing one.

  新機場是現有機場容量的2倍。

  2、the population has nearly trebled in forty years.

  人口在40年中增加了近2倍。

  3、the company quadrupled output to around 20 million tons.

  該公司把產量增至2,000萬噸左右,是原來的四倍。

  4、The output has been quintupled since 1998.

  1998年以來,產量已增長了4倍。

  (六)、英語中用“an increase of n.”或“an n increase of”表示凈增的數量, n可直譯:

  1. There is an increase of 4.5 million tons of steel as compared with last year.

  鋼產量比去年增加了450萬噸。

  2. There is a 25% increase of steel as compared with last year.

  鋼產量比去年增加了450萬噸。

  十、英語中表示減少(倍)數的翻譯

  (一)、用表示“減少”的動詞(decrease,deduce,fall,lower等)連接“by n”或n%”,表示凈減量;用系動詞連接“n less (than)”表示凈減量,所減數均可直譯。

  1、180 decreased by 90 is 90. 180減去90等于90。

  2、The cost decreased by 40%. 成本下降了40%。

  3、This new process used 35% less fuel. 這種工藝少用了35%的燃料。

  (二)、用表示減少的動詞(decrease,reduce,fall,lower等)連接“by n. times”, “n. times”,”n. times as + 形容詞或副詞 + as”,”by a facter of n.”等,均可譯作“減少了n分之(n-1)或減少到n分之1”。

  1.The enterprise management expenditure this year has decreased by three times as against that of 2002.

  該企業的行政管理開支比2002年降低了2/3。

  2. The pre-heating times for the new type thermal meter is shortened 5 times.

  這種新型熱電式儀表的預熱時間縮短了4/5。

  3. The error probability of the equipment was reduced by 2.5 times through technical innovation.

  通過技術革新該設備誤差概率降低了3/5。

  倍數、百分比的譯法

  例1. 以美國黑人為例,黑人只占美國人口的13%,卻占囚犯總數的49%。黑人婦女被判入獄的比率比白人婦女高8倍以上。

  Take American blacks for example. Although they account for only 13 percent of the total population, blacks make up 49 percent of all prisoners. Also, the ratio of the black women in prison is nine times as high as (nine times larger/greater than) that of the white women.

  例2. 美國移民研究中心1999年9月發表的一份報告指出,移民的貧困率在1979至1997年間增長了123%,移民貧困人口由270萬增至770萬。1989至1997年,在新增貧困人口中,移民達300萬人,占75%。

  A report by the American Center for Immigration Research in September, 1999 pointed out that the poverty rate of the immigrants increased 123 percent between 1979 and 1997, and the population of poor immigrants soared from 2.7 million to 7.7 million. Indeed, between 1989 and 1997, the newly increased poor population, 3 million were immigrants, accounting for 75 percent of the total.

  例3. 五年全國共完成技術改造投資2.66萬億元,比前五年增長67%。

  In these five years, technological transformation projects with a total investment of 2.66trillion yuan were completed, 67% over the figure for the previous five years.

  數字的模糊表達:

  例1. 銀河宛轉三千曲,浴鳧飛鷺澄波綠。

  The Milky-like river winds from bend to bend; Cranes fly o’er pure green waves with which wild ducks blend.

  例2. 王冕一路風餐露宿,九十里大站,七十里小站,一徑來到山東濟南府地方。

  Braving the wind and dew, Wang Mian traveled day after day past large posting stations and small, till he came to the city of Jinan.

  例3. 薛蟠也假說來上學,不過是“三天打魚,兩天曬網 ”……卻不曾有一點兒進益。

  Xue Pan had hastened to register himself as a pupil. His school-going was, needless to say, a pretence—“one day fishing and two days to dry the net” as they say-and had nothing to do with the advancement of learning.

  例4. 非常委屈,有時候覺得比單純忙碌的螞蟻還可憐。但是,我解逅了一位老太太,比我可憐一千倍。

  Sorry for myself, I sometimes thought that I was more pitiable than the ants that just keep themselves busy all day long. But one day I happened to meet an elderly lady who should be considered far more “pitiable” than I.

  例5. 孔雀東南飛,五里一徘徊。

  譯文1:Southeast the lovelorn peacock flies. Alack, At every mile she falters and looks back.

  譯文2:A pair of peacocks southeast fly, At each mile they look back and cry.

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